Congress has passed several environmental protection statutes with criminal provisions, including the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Endangered Species Act. The DOJ has not always been consistent in its policy for bringing charges under these statutes, but from time to time, it will initiate a high profile case as part of its enforcement strategy. Due to the complexity and innumerable rules and regulations that are involved in these types of cases, criminal enforcement raises a host of issues. Sadly, many of our clients had no idea that their conduct might create criminal exposure or liability. Over the years we have represented numerous individuals and businesses in connection with environmental criminal investigations. Because these matters are complex and science-driven, we immediately consult with environmental experts who can help advocate our defenses and obtain a favorable outcome for our clients.